Wednesday, April 2, 2014


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In Nigeria, there is huge demand for the Building and Construction, Roads, Ports, Power & telecommunication, Water and Sewerage, Gas Distribution. In the housing sector alone, it is estimated that there is a deficit of 16,000,000 houses.

Other major reason behind the growth is the increased uses of PVC such as in cables, pipes, pipe resins, pipe structures and pipe processing technology.

PVC pipe is continuously replacing conventional Metal Pipe. The popularity of PVC pipe is due to the following reasons:

1. Light Weight

2. Low Cost

3. Easy Installation

4. High Tensile Strength

5. Best Electrical and Heat Insulation Process

PVC Pipe is manufactured mainly through the Extrusion Process.

The Main Raw Materials used are:

- PVC Resin

- D.O.P

- Stabilizers

- Lubricants

- Fillers: calcium Carbonate

- Color: LT Black

- Color Fading Agent: Titanium

The following are the machinery and equipment needed in the production of PVC pipes and joints PVC extruder, Extruder with A.C. main motor, pump for degassing, feeder, connecting head, smart touch Remote Panel & Temperature Control Panel consisting of PID Temperature Controller. Also having features as vacuum sizing unit, cooling tank, haul off unit and cutting device complete with controls and motor, etc.

Manufacturing Process:

As the first step, PVC Resin (Main constitute of Raw material) is mixed with some additives to get ready for the Extrusion Process and batches are formed for materials. A typical Batch of Material for PVC Pipe consists of: PVC 100 KGS, Stabilizers 2.0 to 2.5 KGS, Fillers 0 to 2.0 KGS, Colour 0.5 KGS, K- Values 65 to 67.

High Speed Mixer and Cooler are machinery requirements for this Step, where the above Components are mixed with High Speed Mixer at temperature appropriate for the end product and then Cooler Cools the Mixture.

The mixture is called the Dry Blend and is ready for the Extrusion Process.

The Dry Blend is then fed to the Extruder (machinery) through a Hopper and the Mixture is heated at approximately 150-230 C temperature.

PVC Pipe dies are used to produce different diameter pipes. And a suitable Die is used to manufacture a particular Diameter Pipe.

Cooling water is used for exact control of Pipe Diameter according to standards. The exact diameter of pipe is formed in Water Bath where a Calibration Bush is installed. And the Haul off Machine is used to take the product out. The scrap chances are highest at this stage because an inappropriate Pipe Diameter will be of no use.

Room temperature water is used in the water bath to make the product tough and this Cooling process provides toughness and strength to the pipe.

Also, the PVC Scrap (defected pipe) is sold as a scrap and it can be used by different industries as a consumable item like Resin industry, Wastage removal, Agriculture industry etc.

The Pipe needs to be cut into appropriate sizes and cutter is used for this purpose. Cutters cut the product according to the proper size standard and after cutting the products are conveyed for the Socketing Process. Plain Socketing Machine is used to cut the pipes. The cutters are the automatic machines and has oven with infrared or tubular heaters and to avoid thickness reduction it is given with push and blow mechanism.

Generally two types of joints/ Socket Ends are produced:

- Solvent Weld Joints: These are plain Bell End Joints.

- Z Joint: These are Rubber Ring Method joints.

In Line Socketing machine is used for the socketing of products after Cutting process. The joints are used to join PVC pipes and in other words, we can say that the socket helps to connect one PVC pipe with another PVC pipe.

In Z joint, a rubber ring is used at one end of pipe and the result of this is that within the limits of its pressure range, the higher pressure, tighter the seal.

So, above mentioned is the Manufacturing Process for a Finished PVC Pipe.

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